14 · Survey Results: Executive Summary
identified as specific strategies to increase the diversity
of job applicant pools.
Today, there are a wider variety of strategies. Of
the libraries responding to this survey, 82% have em-
ployed strategies to specifically increase the pool of
ethnically/culturally diverse job applicants. The top
three most frequently reported strategies are target-
ing job ads to participants in ALA and ARL diversity
recruitment programs (68%), supporting ARL diver-
sity initiatives (60%), and training search committees
to develop a diverse candidate pool (60%). Although
40 of the responding libraries have used a range of
strategies to specifically increase the diversity of job
applicant pools, only 21 found any of them particu-
larly successful. Offering post-MLIS residency op-
portunities and recruiting from the five ALA ethnic
caucuses are among the effective strategies. Other
specific ways libraries are recruiting minority librar-
ians include building alliances with the University
of Arizona’s Knowledge River Program, Hispanic
Association of Colleges and Universities (HACU),
Historically Black Colleges and Universities (HBCU),
and LIS Access Midwest Program (LAMP), and at-
tending local career fairs.
Eleven libraries identified particularly successful
job advertising venues to increase the diversity of the
applicant pool. Among the most effective and widely
used method is advertising in publications and on
electronic discussion lists targeted to ethnically and
culturally diverse individuals, including the ALA
ethnic caucus lists.
Along with successful strategies for the recruit-
ment process, 44% of respondents identified recruit-
ment barriers. The library’s geographic location was
the most common barrier to attracting a diverse pool
of candidates, as were lack of qualified applicants
and a general perception of a lack of diversity in the
profession. Other barriers include obtaining racial
and ethnic information from applicants and the lack
of diverse students in MLIS programs interested in
academic library positions.
Mentoring Programs
Though many ARL member libraries have mentoring
programs, only four reported having a program that
is specifically intended to help ethnically/culturally
diverse librarians to attain advancement or tenure.
Another five (10%) are planning to develop such a pro-
gram. Mentoring within the ARL diversity initiatives
and other leadership programs also provides support
for these librarians outside their current positions.
Evaluation &Assessment
Only 11 respondents (22%) have developed any mea-
sures to evaluate the success of their efforts to recruit
an ethnically/culturally diverse workforce, though
nine (18%) plan to develop such measures in the fu-
ture. Only three respondents have any measures to
evaluate the success of retention efforts, but 11 intend
to develop such measures.
To assess their recruitment efforts, some of the
libraries are using the information in the affirmative
action or EEO plan reports. At least one library is in-
volved in a multi-year longitudinal study to investi-
gate the efficacy of the current recruitment sponsored
by ARL. Another library is targeting their recruitment
efforts to MLIS programs with larger graduation rates
by underrepresented students. An increase in the
number of applicants from targeted schools will be
the measure of success.
Workplace Climate
Just under half of the responding institutions have
completed an assessment of the library climate an ad-
ditional eight (17%) are planning a climate assessment
in the future. Most often, the assessment instrument
was a survey developed by the library. Other surveys
were developed by the parent institution or by outside
vendors such as Gallup, ClimateQUAL™, and Towers
Watson International Survey Research.
When asked if the assessment information was
used to change the diversity plan or programs, 14
respondents (32%) reported they have used this infor-
mation to provide guidance in their planning, though
the majority (22 or 50%) has not used the information
in this fashion. Two report that the university imple-
ments the survey and it is not library specific.
Successful diversity management requires a variety
of tactics and strategies. Patricia Kreitz’s research on
diversity “best practices” centered on discovering
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