14 · ARL Annual Salary Survey 2012–2013
Many readers of previous surveys have inquired about evidence of gender-based salary differentials in ARL
libraries. Additionally, data on salary comparisons for directors are frequently requested. Since 2008–09, the
average salary for female directors was slightly higher than that of their male counterparts. However, for the
third consecutive year the trend was reversed, with male directors earning more than female directors (see
Table 18); the number of women in the top administrative library position increased to 68 out of 112 total director
positions reported in 2012–2013 (see Table 18).
In keeping with previous years, the 2012–2013 data show that salaries for women in US ARL university libraries
have not yet met parity with that of men (see Table 18). In 2012–2013, the overall salary for women was 95.90%
of that of men for the 115 ARL university libraries (compared to 96.22% in 2011–2012). This suggests a slight
regression in the slow, long-term trend towards closure of the gender gap in ARL libraries—in 1980–81 women
in ARL libraries made roughly 87% that of men.
Table 18 displays 19 job categories; females earn more than their male counterparts in just 6 of the 19 categories
listed. Table 20 provides average years of professional experience for many of the same staffing categories for
which salary data are shown in Table 18, revealing that experience differentials may explain some differences
within specific job categories. Women have more experience in all but one of the six job categories in which they
average higher pay. In 2011–2012, there were four categories where women, on average, had more experience
and less pay; this year, there are seven categories where women, on average, have more experience and
less pay: associate director, assistant director, administrative specialist, digital specialist; head, rare books/
manuscripts/special collections; head, library technology; and department head-other. Table 22 further reveals
that the average salary for men is consistently higher than the average salary for women in all ten experience
cohorts. Among minority librarians, the average salary for men is higher than that for women in nine of the ten
experience cohorts (see Table 39).
There is a sense that the gender gap persists in academe in areas beyond the library and that a renewed
commitment to resolve the problem is needed.4 A variety of reasons have been offered as to why these trends
persist, most notably the perception that work is peripheral in a woman’s life and, consequently, female-
dominated professions are undervalued. Librarianship is predominantly and persistently a woman’s profession.
The scarcity of men in the profession has been well documented in many studies. The largest percentage of men
employed in ARL libraries was 38.2% in 1980–81; since then men have consistently represented about 35% of the
professional staff in ARL libraries.
The Specialist Breakdown
The job categories and subcategories for the university libraries in the ARL Annual Salary Survey 2012–2013
have been revised and modernized after an extensive review process led by the Task Force on Reviewing
the ARL Statistics, the ARL Annual Salary Survey and the ARL Supplementary Statistics. As a result of
4 There are many instances citing the continuation of gender inequity in academia. See, for example: Mary Ann Mason,
“Still Earning Less,” Chronicle of Higher Education 13 January 2010, http://chronicle.com/article/Still-Earning-Less/63482/;
Katherine Mangan, “Women in Academic Medicine: Equal to Men, Except in Pay,” Chronicle of Higher Education 31 March
2010, http://chronicle.com/article/Women-in-Academic-Medicine-/64892/; Paula Wasley, Gender Gap in Pay Widens
Over Time,” Chronicle of Higher Education (4 May 2007) http://chronicle.com/article/Gender-Gap-in-Pay-Widens-Over/9208/;
Denise K. Manger’s articles in the Chronicle of Higher Education, “Faculty Salaries Increased 3.7% in 1999–2000” (14 April 2000:
A20) and “Faculty Salaries are Up 3.6%, Double the Rate of Inflation” (23 April 1999: A16); D. W. Miller, “Salary Gap Between
Male and Female Professors Grows Over the Years, Study Suggests,” Chronicle of Higher Education, Today’s News (27 April
2000); and Yolanda Moses, “Salaries in Academe: The Gender Gap Persists,” Chronicle of Higher Education (12 December 1997:
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