10 Association of Research Libraries Research Library Issues 296 — 2018 Radical: We are using “radical” in the sense of favoring extreme change in existing practices. See the next section for a discussion of radical collaboration. What Makes Collaboration Radical? A useful path for answering this question begins with a concept called radical candor, defined and popularized by Kim Scott.8 Scott explains the term using two dimensions: “care personally” and “challenge directly.” Radical candor succeeds at both of these dimensions and represents the ideal for providing feedback. When you engage in radical candor, you tell people what you believe they need to hear, not want to hear, in a way that allows them to address your feedback, and in the best of circumstances, to grow or advance. Here is a brief overview of the other three quadrants that illustrate how you should avoid providing feedback: • Obnoxious aggression results from challenging directly and not caring personally, an approach that may succeed in dominating others, but also alienates them • Manipulative insincerity fails on both dimensions by neither caring about nor challenging someone to achieve what you want at their expense and • Ruinous empathy happens when people care, but fail to challenge, a version of killing people with kindness that cannot result in progress.