29 Association of Research Libraries Research Library Issues 303 2022 organizations may need to reexamine our role in intervening and limiting the spread of misinformation. There are calls for tools and processes that detect, flag, and restrict misinformation (Table 1). However, these functions are opposite to libraries’ traditional support for the unrestricted use of information. Additionally, libraries need to examine the value of the open flow of information against the reality that unvetted information may go unchecked in our information ecosystem. While libraries could incorporate our information resources into social media and networking sites to provide context for suspected misinformation, these partnerships may be challenging to forge due to licensing restrictions and organizational capacity. Moreover, would additional information sharing be helpful, or would it intensify overload and confusion? Collaboration. Libraries can contribute to a “whole-of-society” effort to mitigate misinformation by cooperating with diverse stakeholders. We might leverage our connections with users and communities, serving as a rapid communication channel that promotes information resources and services to help citizens respond to current events. Furthermore, there are opportunities for academic libraries to engage with the public to develop information literacies across all levels of society—perhaps through public and school library partnerships. Additionally, academic libraries have opportunities to work with government agencies, public organizations, and community groups— particularly by strengthening our presence in isolated or marginalized communities—as recommended in the proposed national strategies. Reframe information literacy. De Paor and Heravi recommend positioning misinformation resilience as an information-literacy outcome and helping individuals develop the skills to manage the rapid and fragmented dissemination of online information.34 While established information-literacy programs help users locate, evaluate, interpret, and effectively use information, there is an increasing need to integrate scientific, digital, and media literacies as a toolkit for misinformation resilience. Mackey and Jacobson propose
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