24 Association of Research Libraries Research Library Issues 303 2022 misinformation has been politicized and may form elements of an individual’s worldview, making it tougher to address.9 Additionally, there are different types of misinformation to counteract. The Digital, Culture, Media and Sport Committee of the UK House of Commons has recognized six types of false information: fabricated content, manipulated content, impostor content, misleading content, false context of connection, and satire and parody.10 In the health domain, the content of misinformation speaks to a wide range of topics, including immunology, epidemiology, medical technology, regulation, prevention, and interventions. For instance, CDC has listed common “myths” (i.e., misinformation) surrounding COVID-19 vaccines, which speak to these matters.11 What is Driving Health Misinformation? Social media and networking sites are driving misinformation spread. Their limited regulation, lack of verification, and limited consequences for sharing false information are contributing factors.12, 13 Moreover, algorithmically generated recommendations in social media can amplify specific messages and may not present alternative evidence or perspectives. This quality may lead to echo chambers and filter bubbles that fix people’s existing views and knowledge (e.g., selected exposure and confirmation bias).14, 15 Furthermore, Sarah Sobieraj observed that economic models in social and other media platforms reward engagement activities that may lead to misinformation spread.16 The dissemination of misinformation is not limited to social media. For example, the open sharing of non-peer-reviewed research studies in preprint servers contributed to COVID-19 misinformation when news media cited unvetted findings.17 Negative Impacts on Human Health With the rapid dissemination of new health information, especially during the COVID-19 pandemic, people may experience confusion and difficulty identifying credible information.18, 19 As a result, misinformation proliferates, potentially sowing distrust in social
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