27 Association of Research Libraries Research Library Issues 303 2022 information-, health-, scientific-, media-, and digital-literacy skills.26 It includes the ability to detect misinformation, verify information (i.e., fact-checking), find credible information, share information ethically, and engage with people who share or give credence to misinformation. These themes align with the established library values of education, literacy development, information dissemination, and collaboration. Furthermore, the Surgeon General recognized the potential for libraries to develop health literacy among communities, emphasizing the value of our information resources and educational services to address misinformation.27 In practice, recent library initiatives to deal with misinformation center on resource guide development, referral to fact-checking sources, information-literacy programs, and advocacy to mitigate misinformation.28 While libraries have a role, counteracting misinformation can be challenging for our organizations. Firstly, there is a call for proactive interventions to remove or control the spread of false information, including platform-based detection and crowdsourced identification. An example is the WHO’s campaign for citizens to report health misinformation.29 These interventions are necessary since the rapid rate of health-misinformation spread requires an equally quick response. However, libraries do not have a history in this role. Secondly, misinformation can spread heavily on social media and networks. People may not find library resources and services for unbiased and credible information in their preferred online networks. Lastly, misinformation is often framed in a more “emotional and sensational manner.”30 Libraries may therefore need to address sensitive issues like people’s emotions and biases in dynamic information environments. As the COVID-19 pandemic continues, more opportunities may arise for academic libraries to engage with health misinformation. For instance, on August 31, 2021, the San Diego County Board of Supervisors declared health misinformation a public health crisis.31, 32 Focused on the negative
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