7 Association of Research Libraries Research Library Issues 299 2019 and ensuring that AI advancements reflect Canadian values.”14 This followed a statement with France.15 Further, Canada developed AI superclusters, including higher education institutions, to promote the development and use of AI.16 The US National Institute for Standards and Technology (NIST) issued a request for information in May 2019 following the February 2019 United States Executive Order on “Maintaining American Leadership in Artificial Intelligence.” NIST’s charge is to “create a plan for federal engagement in the development of these standards and tools in support of reliable, robust and trustworthy systems that use AI technologies.”17 In June 2019, the Office of the President issued The National Artificial Intelligence Research and Development Strategic Plan: 2019 Update, including a section on ethics.18 All of the above reinforces the undeclared but understood race for AI leadership in today’s world. Declarations and recommendations are not limited to government bodies. The report of the IEEE Global Initiative on Ethics of Autonomous and Intelligent Systems on ethically aligned design bases its recommendations on the principles of human rights, well-being, data agency, effectiveness, transparency, accountability, awareness of misuse, and competence. In their words: Whether our ethical practices are Western (e.g., Aristotelian, Kantian), Eastern (e.g., Shinto, 墨家/School of Mo, Confucian), African (e.g., Ubuntu), or from another tradition, honoring holistic definitions of societal prosperity is essential versus pursuing one- dimensional goals of increased productivity or gross domestic product (GDP). Autonomous and intelligent systems should prioritize and have as their goal the explicit honoring of our inalienable fundamental rights and dignity as well as the increase of human flourishing and environmental sustainability.19 The Montreal Declaration for the responsible development of AI is being implemented with input from the general public.20 Harvard University and MIT have a joint initiative to provide evidence-based
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