49 Association of Research Libraries Research Library Issues 299 — 2019 India, South Korea, and the United Kingdom released similar strategies.7 In 2019, US President Donald Trump signed Executive Order 13859, which established the American Artificial Intelligence Initiative to maintain American leadership in AI.8 The first directive in that Executive Order is to prioritize AI R&D in federal agencies’ annual budgeting and planning process. The US also updated its AI R&D strategic plan in 2019 to reflect advances that had been made since the plan was first published in 2016.9 With so much funding being funneled towards AI research and the competitive international landscape that has quickly emerged, increased AI research at universities will continue to accelerate. With governments around the world launching national strategies in AI, there is now an increased awareness of the need for policies to govern AI technology. Eleonore Pauwels, with the United Nations University Centre for Policy Research, has examined the power of AI converging with other emerging technologies such as cyber- and biotechnologies, affective computing, neurotechnologies, robotics, and automated manufacturing.10 She explores scenarios in which the technologies, once released from the lab environments where they were created, can create deception, degradation of truth, targeted monitoring of specific populations, exploitation of vulnerabilities in infrastructure, and other actions that have a negative impact on society and governments. Alternatively, the convergence of AI with other technologies has the opportunity to address issues such as famine and disease, healthcare inequalities, military attacks from hostile forces, election fraud, and violent crimes. Countries have recognized the need to begin developing policies to govern the use of AI technologies, but this is still in an early stage. The With so much funding being funneled towards AI research and the competitive international landscape that has quickly emerged, increased AI research at universities will continue to accelerate.