6 Association of Research Libraries Research Library Issues 299 2019 this discussion. A study by ARL, CNI, and EDUCAUSE over the next 18 months seeks to shed light on the critical technologies shaping research and learning (including AI), and the implications for research libraries as collaborative partners in the research enterprise.9 AI Ethics Initiatives in 2019 There are significant AI ethics initiatives underway in 2019 both globally and nationally. This is a critical and opportune time for research libraries to assess and actively engage in informing the principles and practices of AI institutionally, in public policy, and in the research and learning community. Following an initial draft in December 2018, in April 2019 the European Commission’s High-Level Expert Group on Artificial Intelligence established seven essentials for achieving trustworthy artificial intelligence. The essentials are: human agency and oversight robustness and safeness privacy and data governance transparency diversity, non-discrimination, and fairness societal and environmental well-being and accountability.10 On May 22, 2019, the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) issued the “Recommendation of the Council on Artificial Intelligence,”11 adopted by 42 countries, including Canada and the United States. On June 9, 2019, the G20 agreed on guiding principles for adopting artificial intelligence.12 Although the principles among these bodies are not identical, they are more similar than different. Recently, France, Germany, and Japan agreed to jointly fund AI research that respects privacy and transparency.13 Closer to our members from Canada and the United States, on May 14, 2019, the Canadian Minister of Innovation, Science and Economic Development announced the Advisory Council on Artificial Intelligence. The purpose is to “advise the Government of Canada on building Canada’s strengths and global leadership in AI, identifying opportunities to create economic growth that benefits all Canadians,
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