48 Association of Research Libraries Research Library Issues 299 2019 continued use, users are blindly trusting in systems that can have implicit bias programmed into them and limited knowledge that can skew results towards unexpected behaviors.3 AI and Research Universities in the National and Global Context Research universities occupy an interesting space with respect to AI. They, like any other industry, can rely on AI-enabled systems to identify patterns in massive amounts of data about their users (students, faculty, staff, and visitors) and make inferences that provide guidance in better serving these populations as well as predicting future behaviors. As part of their mission to educate, research universities are teaching students about AI, preparing them to develop algorithms and software, along with data analysis these are key skills that make students computationally adept, thus providing a pipeline of talent for today’s workforce. The other core mission for research universities is research. Many of these institutions are advancing AI technology through ongoing research with significant funding from the federal government. In 2015, the US government invested approximately $1.1 billion in unclassified research and development (R&D) for AI-related technologies.4 In fiscal year 2017, that expenditure was more than $2 billion and for fiscal year 2020 the federal government expects to invest about $4.9 billion in unclassified AI research.5 Research expenditures are an important metric in research university rankings, so knowing the focus of federal funding priorities will inevitably lead to more AI-related research initiatives at universities. The US is not alone in AI R&D investments. In 2016, the US government published a National Artificial Intelligence Research and Development Strategic Plan to establish objectives for federally funded AI research.6 In 2017, Canada, China, Finland, Japan, Singapore, and the United Arab Emirates released national strategies to promote AI use and development. In 2018, Denmark, the European Union, France,
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