25 Association of Research Libraries Research Library Issues 297 — 2019 the Personal Information Protection and Electronic Documents Act (PIPEDA), which has governed data privacy since 2000.15 While the updates included amendments regarding data security breaches, Canada is considering more sweeping changes. The Standing Committee on Access to Information, Privacy and Ethics published the report, “Addressing Digital Vulnerabilities and Potential Threats to Canada’s Democratic Electoral Process” recommending additional amendments to PIPEDA, in line with GDPR.16 In 2018, the Canadian government held national digital and data consultations, including roundtables in Ottawa, Vancouver, Calgary, Regina, Winnipeg, Waterloo, Toronto, Ottawa, Montreal, Quebec, Fredericton, Charlottetown, Halifax, St. John’s, and Whitehorse, in addition to a roundtable in Silicon Valley in the United States.17 However, legislation has not yet been introduced in Canada to create a GDPR-like law. Because companies, even those based outside the EU, may interact with those in the EU and must comply with GDPR, it is easier to take a uniform approach to data collection. As the months following GDPR’s effective date demonstrate, one natural result has been an effort in several countries to update their own privacy laws to ensure a compatible standard. The growing number of countries adopting GDPR-like laws places the United States as an outlier because of the lack of comprehensive, uniform privacy laws. Without comprehensive federal legislation, the United States risks losing credibility and leadership on the issue of privacy. On the Horizon in the United States The interest in protecting consumer privacy in the United States likely stems from a number of events. First, as a practical matter, the notice-and-consent regime that has formed the basis for many services In 2018, the EU’s General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR) went into effect and has resulted in a domino effect in terms of compliance by private businesses as well as new legislation in other countries.