20 Association of Research Libraries Research Library Issues 292 — 2017 Beyond this, the wording of our survey invitation framed the study as follows: The Canadian Association of Research Libraries’ (CARL) Open Access Working Group...is interested in investigating possible new [emphasis added] publishing models for Canadian University Presses and Joint University/Library Presses at Canadian academic institutions.... Words carry weight and meaning the use of the word “new” implies that the existing or “old” publishing models are in need of review and/ or replacement by an alternative. For many university presses, their existing business models have served and continue to serve them well. They may have also felt implied pressure to engage with a model that was not currently viable. What we might do differently next time: • In seeking to address seminal issues and ask “hard” questions, take a much more balanced approach and ask those questions of all stakeholders in a structured way in the survey. • Avoid misplaced use of the word “new.” This carelessly chosen word may have rendered the survey null and void in the minds of some of the intended participants even before they clicked on the link to participate. In this way, position the survey more neutrally. • Timing is everything! Align the investigation and the questions posed in the survey more closely to the issues identified in the 2015 ACUP report, released immediately prior to the survey. • Invite the association to draft and/or review the questions (see lesson 2, below), fostering an opportunity for collaboration and potentially leveraging uptake.