6 Association of Research Libraries Research Library Issues 290 2017 researchers includes students’ development of information literacy,8 with close to 70% of library strategic plans listing information literacy as a paramount focus.9 Also the Ithaka S+R US Faculty Survey 2015 indicated “an increase in the share of faculty members who believe that their undergraduate students have poor research skills and a substantial increase in the perceived importance of the role of the library in helping undergraduate students develop research, critical analysis, and information literacy skills.”10 Libraries, in turn, have a long history of teaching and assessing information literacy and of focusing on student learning. Efforts like the Association of College & Research Libraries (ACRL) Information Literacy Immersion Assessment Workshop, the ACRL’s Information Literacy Competency Standards for Higher Education, and now the ACRL Framework for Information Literacy for Higher Education11 attest to the connections between libraries and student learning. As a result, the library community is much more likely to create student learning outcomes and use a variety of formative and summative student learning assessments.12 However, at a substantial number of institutions, the majority of instruction programs are built on a “one-shot model and tend to capture limited amounts of information, e.g., only one librarian’s class, one group of students, or one assessment method.”13 Some libraries offer credit-bearing courses and have built deeper, richer student learning assessments.14 However, librarians often continue to find themselves in an awkward position in supporting student learning of critical thinking, analytical thinking, written communication skills, and reading comprehension. These higher- order skills take time and practice to develop, and time and practice are inherently not part of a one-shot session. Thus, there remains a significant gap with regard to the libraries’ role in students’ development of other critical learning outcomes common across colleges and universities. The absence of data related to these outcomes is concerning given Oakleaf’s recommendation that
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