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1 A print-disabled person is someone who cannot effectively read print because of a visual,
physical, perceptual, developmental, cognitive, or learning disability. Print is a proxy for textual
in the research library environment, as research libraries collect in all formats for teaching, research,
and learning.
2 The Library Copyright Alliance (LCA) consists of three major library associations—the American
Library Association, the Association of Research Libraries, and the Association of College and
Research Libraries. These three associations collectively represent over 300,000 information
professionals and thousands of libraries of all kinds throughout the United States and Canada.
These three associations cooperate in the LCA to address copyright issues that affect libraries and
their patrons. The purpose of the LCA is to work toward a unified voice and common strategy
for the library community in responding to and developing proposals to amend national and
international copyright law and policy for the digital environment. The LCA’s mission is to foster
global access and fair use of information for creativity, research, and education.
3 “Joint ‘Dear Colleague’ Letter: Electronic Book Readers,” DOJ and ED to College or University
President, June 29, 2010, http://www2.ed.gov/about/offices/list/ocr/letters/colleague-20100629.html.
4 Legislative Summary of Bill C-11: An Act to Amend the Copyright Act, Library of Parliament
Research Publication 41-1-C11E, Parliament of Canada, rev. April 20, 2012, http://bit.ly/Tr73LN.
5 “Inclusion Promotes Innovation,” Jutta Treviranus, Toronto Star, Sept. 12, 2007, http://www.thestar.
6 “National Library Service: That All May Read: History,” Library of Congress, Sept. 17, 2012, http://
7 In 1917, the name was changed to the Canadian National Library for the Blind, and in 1919 it became
the Library and Publishing Department of the Canadian National Institute for the Blind.
8 Joseph W. Madaus, “The History of Disability Services in Higher Education,” New Directions for
Higher Education, no. 154 (Summer 2011): 5–15.
9 In 1975, Congress passed the Education for All Handicapped Children Act of 1975 (PL 94–142), now
called the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA).
10 “An Open Letter on Accessibility from Research University Presidents,” to President William J.
Clinton, International Center for Disability Resources on the Internet, Sept. 20, 2000, http://www.
11 Brian Wentz, Paul T. Jaeger, and Jonathan Lazar, “Retrofitting Accessibility: The Legal Inequality
of After-the-Fact Online Access for Persons with Disabilities in the United States,” First Monday,
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