16 Association of Research Libraries Research Library Issues 293 — 2018 Critics of the repeal of the 2015 Open Internet Order also point to the fact that the FCC did not show a changed landscape justifying a complete rollback of its prior rule, other than a change in party in the Administration. The Administrative Procedures Act requires agencies to act in a reasoned manner to protect the public against the whims of a change in leadership, and agency actions therefore cannot be arbitrary and capricious. The FCC’s new order does not appear to be grounded in solid evidence, making it vulnerable to challenges. Additionally, the dissenting FCC Commissioners and several members of Congress unsuccessfully pushed to delay the FCC’s December vote after reports that millions of fake comments were submitted during the FCC’s rulemaking process. These lawmakers argued that the FCC should not vote to change the rules which were, theoretically, grounded in comments received from the Notice of Proposed Rulemaking (NPRM), until an investigation into the fake comments, including half a million comments traced to Russian email accounts, had been initiated and concluded. Despite these concerns, the FCC went forward with its scheduled vote and net neutrality will no longer be protected unless courts or Congress intervene. Ultimately, the general public will be harmed by the FCC’s elimination of net neutrality protections and the companion piece in this RLI issue suggests what some of the practical consequences will be for the research and education community, should the new FCC order remain in place. While the FCC’s decision to abandon rules for net neutrality is concerning, the agency is not the final word on open internet protections. Multiple avenues for pursuing an open internet remain, both at the federal and state levels. While the FCC’s decision to abandon rules for net neu- trality is concerning, the agency is not the final word on open internet protections.