RLI 287  21 RESEARCH LIBRARY ISSUES: A REPORT FROM ARL, CNI, AND SPARC 2015 OA initiatives or the article processing charges of future authors’ submissions to the journal.”20 Another recent innovation is the networked monograph—electronic versions of scholarly works that will be iterative and produced alongside traditional print editions. Among these Mellon-funded projects are Manifold Scholarship, a joint venture of the University of Minnesota Press and the GC Digital Scholarship Lab at the Graduate Center of the City University of New York (CUNY),21 and the Enhanced Network Monograph, a three-year project of New York University Libraries and NYU Press to experiment with new publishing workflows and with the capacity for readers to engage the texts online. The University of North Carolina Press is developing its Longleaf Services as an experiment in a collaborative platform that will handle production, operational and marketing task, and free up academic presses to concentrate on the editorial process foremost. The Humanities Open Book Program is a recent joint grant program of the NEH and Mellon Foundation that is again looking to release backlist monographs and scholarship.22 International efforts began in the late 1990s with far more of these projects geared toward versions of open access (green or gold) or completely free and open access after the Budapest Open Access Initiative was released to the public in 2002. OAPEN (Open Access Publishing in European Networks) was started in 2000 and has grown to become a platform for open access, peer-reviewed humanities and social sciences monographs produced by European publishers. As with many of the other systems, the OAPEN library and publishing platform allows users to browse the full text of its works or by author, series title, or subject, with additional search capability. The Australian National University (ANU) Press, originally founded as ANU E-Press in 2003, changed its name in 2014 because “digital publication has become the norm across publishing, the Press no longer needs to set itself apart as a digital publisher, and so has taken the traditional academic publishing name of ANU Press.”23 The Canadian Public Knowledge Project was founded in 1998, created its Open Journal Systems in 2001, and its Open Monograph Press in 2013, an open source, online environment for editing and producing digital texts. The Open Library of the Humanities, founded in 2013, is developing its own scholarly publishing pilot to complement its megajournal platform.24 In the UK, the Knowledge Unlatched25 pilot project ran from October 2013 through February 2014 as an example of what Eileen Joy calls “graduated OA.”26 Knowledge Unlatched (KU) included a collection of 28 books produced by 13 publishers, that remain available as OA downloads through HathiTrust even though the project has stalled because the OA playing field is in flux and its model depends on a near ­ comprehensive change in the way libraries and publishers interact. (KU required libraries to pay title fees to publishers in order to allow access to these works through a range of Creative Commons licensing agreements.) Also in the UK, the Higher Education Funding Council for England (HEFCE) Monographs and Open Access Project began in 2013 and will end in 2015. This is another project founded on the premise that monographs and other long-form publications must move from the traditional publishing model in order to survive. They have received a great deal of pushback against OA publication but their Expert Reference Group is optimistic and is pursuing a middle­course that recognizes the substantial issues surrounding both print and open access monographs. However, the group is also considering how advances in digital technologies are creating new opportunities for scholarship while driving cultural changes that challenge the monograph as the preeminent form of scholarly communication.
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