RLI 287  10 RESEARCH LIBRARY ISSUES: A REPORT FROM ARL, CNI, AND SPARC 2015 growth of such journals (especially STEM) meant an increased risk of work being lost or overlooked, although journal aggregators and online full-text databases help mitigate against such loss. These newer e-journals began to offer enhancements beyond print and full-text searches as evolving technology enabled embedded images, illustrations, graphs, photos, video and animation clips, and hyperlinks to references and other sources. However, many libraries had to reduce or discontinue some of their print subscriptions to free up funds for new e-journal subscriptions, with others turning to the growing number of open access publications for their users as well. Regardless, Waters warned that libraries (and other subscribers) only licensed access to the “content stored on remote systems controlled by publishers” and that consolidation put this control into “fewer and fewer hands,”15 necessitating not only some form of sustained access but also the creation of digital archiving services as access was not the same as ownership and material could be lost. In 1993 the Mellon Foundation began experimenting with new approaches to reinforce the work of research libraries to support scholarship and higher education in general these included “online, stand- alone, and hybrid technologies, applied to a range of arts and sciences fields in a variety of institutional settings (from small colleges to large research universities).”16 Mellon emphasized “electronic publishing” broadly by providing grant support to a number of institutions exploiting new technologies in wide variety of approaches in part as a response to the growing crisis in scholarly publishing. In 1994 Mellon began to support the creation of e-journals as well as the digitization of back-issue journals this meant, among other things, grants to MIT to establish an e-Journal, The Chicago Journal of Theoretical Computer Science, which did not restrict the use of its content, making it a very early completely open access publication. Mellon in concert with the NEH helped Johns Hopkins University Press to make their 40 scholarly journals available digitally through Project MUSE (formerly the University Press Ebook Consortium), greatly enhancing their accessibility, but only within those institutions that paid to subscribe to these works. The use of a paywall helped Project Muse recover costs, so within a few years it had expanded to include other scholarly presses and journals as part of its subscription-restricted content as a “leading provider of online journals in the humanities and social sciences.” 17 In 1994 another much more ambitious program was begun, the Journal Storage project (JSTOR) it was conceived of as a means to reduce the costs of (physical) storage, and to enhance access and usage of academic articles by digitizing journal back-issues in the humanities and social sciences.18 JSTOR began by page-scanning series to supply 600 dpi images as downloadable PDFs in a database, but also began experimenting by adding SGML tags in 1995 to aid in indexing and discovery, providing an example for future digital works to emulate.19 By 1996 JSTOR had grown to include 100 scholarly journals in a number of fields, with more publishers beginning to recognize the practical advantages to having their materials contained in the database to augment print publication. In April 1997 a conference largely supported by the Mellon foundation was held at Emory University in which a large number of papers discussed issues surrounding electronic publishing, including: “journal pricing and user acceptance, patterns of use technical choices and standards, licenses, copyright, and fair use and multi-institutional cooperation.”20 The great success of JSTOR led to the creation of the ARTSTOR project, another database whose creation would parallel, complement, and even extend the mission of JSTOR to provide textual content by “organiz[ing] and distribut[ing] electronic archives of art
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