findings: (1) there is considerable acceptance of ILL services, and (2) there is no uniformly adopted language or permission describing ILL services.2 The majority of publishers allow ILL.3 Of those publishers that deny ILL, the majority are small scholarly societies. The majority of publishers do not restrict ILL to same country.4, 5 The majority of publishers allow ILL, using secure e-transmission via resource-sharing software systems such as Ariel or ILLiad. It is fairly standard for publishers who allow secure e-transmission to require digitization from a printed copy rather than supplying a copy of the e-format. This point is often successfully negotiated to permit use of the electronic copy to send via Ariel or ILLiad. ILL language, even that taken from model licenses, is often contradictory making it difficult both to interpret and to comply with license language may fail to show an understanding of ILL tools and workflow, making it difficult for libraries to track in appropriate ways and it may include conditions impossible for libraries to comply with, even if willing.6 Commission on New Technological Uses of Copyrighted Works (CONTU) Guidelines on Photocopying under Interlibrary Loan Arrangements are mentioned in a minority of licenses allowing ILL.7 ILL and Electronic Books The e-book environment is younger and business terms for e-books are far more elastic than those for e-journals at the same time, e-book rights management issues are more complex. Many publishers embrace the notion of ILL for e-books, although it is not clear exactly what that means or how tracking and delivery will be managed. Informal conversations with representatives of two of the three largest scientific, technical, and medical (STM) publishers have indicated a willingness to experiment with e-book ILL. The basic lending unit of a print book is the entire book. A publisher’s e-book license frequently allows copying and lending of chapters only via ILL. In some situations (e.g., a work of fiction) this would be insufficient access for the user. E-book aggregators, and services that act as e-book platforms for third- party publishers (i.e., ebrary, Ebook Library (EBL), and NetLibrary) have not made arrangements to permit ILL. RLI 275 20 White Paper: Trends in Licensing ( C O N T I N U E D ) JUNE 2011 RESEARCH LIBRARY ISSUES: A QUARTERLY REPORT FROM ARL, CNI, AND SPARC
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