since its inception, is to foster a more open system for the exchange of scholarly research results—a system that advances scholarship, leverages the opportunities presented by digital publishing technologies and ubiquitous networking, and reduces the financial pressures on libraries. Recognizing that changes to the traditional model of disseminating research have significant financial implications, especially for societies and other nonprofit publishers, RLI 266 15 SPARC Explores Income Models for Supporting Open-Access Journals ( C O N T I N U E D ) OCTOBER 2009 RESEARCH LIBRARY ISSUES: A BIMONTHLY REPORT FROM ARL, CNI, AND SPARC Value Proposition Value Proposition for Authors (e.g., impact) Value Proposition for End Users (e.g., quality) Value Proposition for Libraries (end user demand) Value Proposition for Funders (e.g., mission alignment) Value Proposition for Sponsors (e.g., target audience) Income Streams Article Processing Fees Subsidies & Grants Advertising/Sponsorship Revenue Use-Triggered Voluntary Fees Value-added Services Create Deliver Value Pay Choose/Use Submit Content Fund Fund Client Segment Authors End Users Libraries/Proxies Funders Advertisers/Sponsors Cost Structure Publishing Activities Income Model Support Activities Partnerships/Alliances About Business Models A business model describes the economic logic that sustains an enterprise. For the publisher of a peer-reviewed journal, it describes the journal's audiences, the unique value that the journal delivers to each of those audiences, the activities and resources required to create and deliver that value, and the market mechanisms by which the journal translates the value it delivers into income to sustain itself. See accompanying diagram of business model logic. —excerpted from Income Models for Open Access: An Overview of Current Practice
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