findings: (1) there is considerable acceptance of ILL services, and (2) there is no
uniformly adopted language or permission describing ILL services.2
• The majority of publishers allow ILL.3
• Of those publishers that deny ILL, the majority are small scholarly societies.
• The majority of publishers do not restrict ILL to same country.4,
• The majority of publishers allow ILL, using secure e-transmission via
resource-sharing software systems such as Ariel or ILLiad. It is fairly
standard for publishers who allow secure e-transmission to require
digitization from a printed copy rather than supplying a copy of the
e-format. This point is often successfully negotiated to permit use of
the electronic copy to send via Ariel or ILLiad.
• ILL language, even that taken from model licenses, is often contradictory
making it difficult both to interpret and to comply with; license language
may fail to show an understanding of ILL tools and workflow, making it
difficult for libraries to track in appropriate ways; and it may include
conditions impossible for libraries to comply with, even if willing.6
• Commission on New Technological Uses of Copyrighted Works (CONTU)
Guidelines on Photocopying under Interlibrary Loan Arrangements are
mentioned in a minority of licenses allowing ILL.7
ILL and Electronic Books
The e-book environment is younger and business terms for e-books are far more
elastic than those for e-journals; at the same time, e-book rights management
issues are more complex. Many publishers embrace the notion of ILL for
e-books, although it is not clear exactly what that means or how tracking
and delivery will be managed. Informal conversations with representatives of
two of the three largest scientific, technical, and medical (STM) publishers have
indicated a willingness to experiment with e-book ILL.
• The basic lending unit of a print book is the entire book. A publisher’s
e-book license frequently allows copying and lending of chapters only
via ILL. In some situations (e.g., a work of fiction) this would be
insufficient access for the user.
• E-book aggregators, and services that act as e-book platforms for third-
party publishers (i.e., ebrary, Ebook Library (EBL), and NetLibrary) have
not made arrangements to permit ILL.
White Paper: Trends in Licensing
C O N T I N U E D
JUNE 2011 RESEARCH LIBRARY ISSUES: A QUARTERLY REPORT FROM ARL, CNI, AND SPARC