other academic libraries provide requested documents to their users electronically
(usually in the form of a non-searchable, image-only PDF). In this scenario,
when a requested article arrives it is posted to a secure web server and the user
is given a URL with which to access the article. Access to the article is limited via
password or other means of authentication to the user who requested it, and the
user has a limited time frame and a limited number of views before the article is
automatically deleted. Most academic and research libraries do not send articles
via e-mail because it is not secure, e-mail boxes may not be large enough, and
articles could easily be forwarded.
Generally within the US, research and academic libraries set up reciprocal
arrangements with very specific and limited numbers of partner libraries. There
may also be formal relationships between institutions. It is worth mentioning
that standard practice is to serve users through local document delivery, which
provides materials to a library’s own institutional affiliates (whether at home or
abroad). Some institutions have campuses abroad. Document delivery for such
campuses, which occur on an international level, is still internal to the institution.
An affiliate is part of a licensing agreement.
ARL institutions are expanding their global presence through the establish-
ment of overseas campuses and centers, through joint degree programs with
other universities, and through formal academic partnerships. This growth in
international relations is also expanding implications for ARL libraries with the
expectation that collection access, including ILL and document delivery, can
appropriately be part of the arrangements.
International ILL requests are on the rise due to a number of factors. The world-
wide increase of access to the Internet and the ease with which information is
discovered facilitate the growth of requests. OCLC and DOCLINE have
facilitated locating materials from around the world by aggressively loading
participating libraries’ local holdings records. As of 2010, 57.5% of OCLC records
are non-English, and this percentage of non-English records is growing. Though
OCLC headquarters may reside in Ohio, the organization is global in scale and is
continually increasing the number of foreign members. Along with membership,
those libraries are loading their holdings and expanding what is discoverable.
Once a user has discovered the information, the next step is simply to request
the item(s). Libraries transmit requests to one another using OCLC, DOCLINE,
White Paper: International Interlibrary Loan
C O N T I N U E D
JUNE 2011 RESEARCH LIBRARY ISSUES: A QUARTERLY REPORT FROM ARL, CNI, AND SPARC