since its inception, is to foster a more open system for the exchange of
scholarly research results—a system that advances scholarship, leverages the
opportunities presented by digital publishing technologies and ubiquitous
networking, and reduces the financial pressures on libraries. Recognizing that
changes to the traditional model of disseminating research have significant
financial implications, especially for societies and other nonprofit publishers,
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SPARC Explores Income Models for Supporting Open-Access Journals
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C O N T I N U E D
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OCTOBER 2009 RESEARCH LIBRARY ISSUES: A BIMONTHLY REPORT FROM ARL, CNI, AND SPARC
Value Proposition
Value Proposition for Authors (e.g., impact)
Value Proposition for End Users (e.g., quality)
Value Proposition for Libraries (end user demand)
Value Proposition for Funders (e.g., mission alignment)
Value Proposition for Sponsors (e.g., target audience)
Income Streams
Article Processing Fees
Subsidies & Grants
Advertising/Sponsorship Revenue
Use-Triggered Voluntary Fees
Value-added Services
Create
Deliver
Value
Pay
Choose/Use
Submit Content
Fund
Fund
Client Segment
Authors
End Users
Libraries/Proxies
Funders
Advertisers/Sponsors
Cost Structure
Publishing Activities
Income Model Support Activities
Partnerships/Alliances
About Business Models
A business model describes the economic logic that sustains an enterprise. For the publisher of a peer-reviewed
journal, it describes the journal's audiences, the unique value that the journal delivers to each of those audiences, the
activities and resources required to create and deliver that value, and the market mechanisms by which the journal
translates the value it delivers into income to sustain itself. See accompanying diagram of business model logic.
—excerpted from Income Models for Open Access: An Overview of Current Practice
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